Academic research writing and referencing

The name highlighted should always be the name under which the work will have been filed on the library shelves or referenced in any indexing system. Note that in the last two references above, it is the book title and the journal name that are italicised, not the title of the paper or article. custom term paper heat transfer The title of the book should be formatted to distinguish it from the other details; in the example above it is italicised, but it could be in bold, underlined or in inverted commas. Once you have understood the principles common to all referencing systems you should be able to apply the specific rules set by your own department. This guide aims to explain the general principles by giving details of the two most commonly used formats, the 'author, date' system and footnotes or endnotes.

Information on the internet changes rapidly and web pages move or are sometimes inaccessible meaning it can often be difficult to validate or even find information cited from the internet. When referencing web pages it is helpful to include details that will help other people check or follow up the information. examples of dissertation proposal vs defense powerpoint presentation Employers are not just looking for high academic achievement and have identified competencies that distinguish the high performers from the average graduate. When multi-authored works have been quoted, it is important to include the names of all the authors, even when the text reference used was et al.

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When you are writing an essay, report, dissertation or any other form of academic writing, your own thoughts and ideas inevitably build on those of other writers, researchers or teachers. For particularly important points, or for parts of texts that you might wish to quote word for word, also include in your notes the specific page reference. Academic research writing and referencing The internet is increasingly used as a source of information and it is just as important to reference internet sources as it is to reference printed sources. Rules for the formatting of the detailed references follow the same principles as for the reference lists for the 'author, date' system. If you have included a straight copy of a table or figure, then it is usual to add a reference to the table or figure caption thus:.

Footnote or endnote markers , usually a sequential series of numbers either in brackets or slightly above the line of writing or printing superscript , are placed at the appropriate point in the text. A suggested format is to include the author of the information this may be an individual, group or organisation , the date the page was put on the internet most web pages have a date at the bottom of the page , the title, the http: The seminars that are often a part of humanities courses can provide opportunities for students to develop the communication and interpersonal skills that are valued by employers Lyon,

When multi-authored works have been quoted, it is important to include the names of all the authors, even when the text reference used was et al. It is essential that you acknowledge your debt to the sources of data, research and ideas on which you have drawn by including references to, and full details of, these sources in your work. Academic research writing and referencing It is often the name which is written on the spine of the volume, and if you remember this it may be easier for you to remember which is the appropriate title to highlight.

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The format for the text citation is normally exactly the same as for a published work and should give the speaker's name and the date of the presentation. Please note that in contrast to the format used for the published sources given in the first three examples above, the formatting of references for unpublished sources does not include italics, as there is no publication title to highlight. resume writing services online sydney reviews If you have included a straight copy of a table or figure, then it is usual to add a reference to the table or figure caption thus:. Recent research on the origins of early man has challenged the views expressed in many of the standard textbooks Barker,

Copies of the system are also made available on Blackboard. National Westminster Bank plc. history essay writing service student room This is normally where you would insert the author and date if you were using the 'author, date' system described above.

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More detailed discussion of referencing conventions is to be found in the following publications:. Note that in the last two references above, it is the book title and the journal name that are italicised, not the title of the paper or article. Academic research writing and referencing A suggested format is to include the author of the information this may be an individual, group or organisation , the date the page was put on the internet most web pages have a date at the bottom of the page , the title, the http:

This gives the reader the opportunity to find the particular place in the text where the point referred to is made. Note that in this example reference has been made to a specific point within a very long text in this instance a book and so a page number has been added. Academic research writing and referencing If the idea or information that you wish to cite has been told to you personally, perhaps in a discussion with a lecturer or a tutor, it is normal to reference the point as shown in the example below. When referencing web pages it is helpful to include details that will help other people check or follow up the information. There are many other ways in which references can be formatted - look at the books and articles you read for other examples and at any guidelines in your course handbooks.


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